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Not long after this time the system spread to the Teutonic outreaches of the Roman empire and, with proper equations of Teutonic gods, became the English week still in use. A final chapter in the Western story came with the first Christian emperor of Rome, Constantine, who decreed the seven-day week the official system for Rome in AD.
Incidentally, this effectively established the prototype of the official weekend as well, as Sunday became an official day off and Saturday, the Jewish sabbath, a day devoid of normal commercial activities. As noted above, it was about the time of Constantine or a century or so afterwards that there is firm evidence in India of the seven-day week spreading there.
We have noted already its further eastward progress—ultimately to modern Thai usage.
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The early Tai association of certain days with fortune and misfortune may have been partially remapped onto the seven day week. Some Thai beliefs regarding days of the week shown in 3. For selecting names for the newborn, particular weekdays were held to correlate with letters of the Thai alphabet in auspicious combinations. In traditional practice, at least in aristocratic circles, if a baby was born, say, on Sunday, to be auspicious, its name needed to begin with a vowel i. King Chulalongkorn was born on a Tuesday, accounting for the palatal ch- letter beginning his name.
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This traditional system, which slightly upsets Indic alphabetic order, is shown in 3. In this acount, the indicated lucky letter should preferably begin the name or for female two-syllable names, begin the second syllable , but it might otherwise occur as second letter or final. Other versions, sometimes quite elaborate, are available in Thai astrology manuals which are still widely consulted when children are born.
In one such account Chamnong Thongprasert eight prognostics are associated with days of the week and with letters to be considered when choosing a name, as in 3.
In yet more complex a variant, the prognostics columns in 3. Prior to the Greek impact on Indic astronomy, the Hindus had carefully observed the day-by-day progress of the moon through the ecliptic over the course of one lunar month to the next. In cases where a stretch of the zodiac lacked bright stars, other stars or constellations of similar longitude were used to name the mansion, as in mansions 6, 13, 15, etc.
An occasional 28 th mansion was sometimes added to keep the system accurate. The system was codified to be a reliable way of keeping track of days. For convenience, Indic retroflex consonants are shown by capital letters. Thai tradition has associated different shapes with the star groups Royal Institute Other time units are suggested by this division of the zodiac.
Lunar months could be designated by this system, with the mansion of the Full Moon in a given month furnishing the name of the month, as noted below.
In addition a unit similar to an hour is obtained by attending to the particular mansion either on the eastern horizon or directly overhead at a given moment the latter usually called [rkSa] in Sanskrit, cp Thai [roe:k]. This system was clearly known to writers of 14 th century Tai inscriptions, who were interested in auspicious timing. They tended to redefine technical terms slightly, with [roe:k] in Thai referring to the mansions and the Thai form of [nakasat] extended to refer to cyclical years i. Like the early Hindus, the Babylonians were keen astronomers.
However, instead of dividing the zodiac into lunar mansions as the Hindus did, it is likely that they were responsible for first dividing it into the twelve solar-based zodiacal constellations familiar in the West. Greece and then Rome adopted the system through early contact. It was passed on to India along with the seven-day week, as above, where it was superimposed over the earlier lunar mansions, as though the same star groups now had two ways to be interpreted.
Twelve of the lunar mansions were selected to name twelve lunar months, the month-names derived from the [nakSatra] names by undergoing a Sanskrit phonological lengthening process vrddhi. Thus, for example, the month Caitra was named as the lunar month when the Full Moon occurred near the [nakSatra] or [roe:k] star Citra i. Spica, or alpha Virginis. This would have been approximately during the solar month of Aries the Ram March-April , where the sun would be opposite the Full Moon.
The Hindus did not use the Western or Babylonian zodiacal terms as phonetic borrowings, but translated them into Sanskrit, e. The difference between siderial and tropical signs is discussed below. In Thai usage, an adapatation of the base form of the [roe:k] can be used to name the lunar month rather than using a derived vriddhi form as in Sanskrit. These month names are shown in the right column in 5.
Some of these names, such as for the 6 th lunar month, Thai [wisa:kha], are well-known; however other names would be known only by Thai astrologers Prasert Na Nagara Hence, 4.
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This name is altered by vrddhi lengthening, as 5. This refers to a Full Moon occurring near the designated part of Orion, which most frequently happens in December. However, the common Thai practice is simply to refer to lunar months by number, e. For the first and second lunar months, the older Tai counting forms [a:y] and [yi:] are used.
Summarising then, we note that [roe:k] names have two Indic interpretations star groups and lunar months , as do Sanskrit zodiac names star groups and solar months, i.
In Thai, yet a third use of the Indic set of solar zodiacal names is far more familiar, illustrated in 5. The main feature differentiating the Roman i. Julian, then Gregorian calendar from the pre-Western Sanskrit, Khmer and Thai system was the Roman uncoupling of calendrical months from the moon. According to classical traditions, Julius Caesar regularised the Roman calendar by alternating 31 and 30 days for odd and even months respectively, counting from March, the traditional first month of the Roman calendar.
The moon played no role in this count. He also instituted the leap year system, with days for February. Julius Caesar then renamed the fifth month starting from March after himself as "July". We have his nephew, Caesar Augustus, to thank for upsetting the alternating system. Augustus, renaming the sixth month of Sextilis after himself our "August" , changed its count from 30 to 31 days, reportedly to avoid feeling slighted.
This system, also used in colonial India, was officially established in by King Chulalongkorn when other attributes of the Western calendar were adopted. Note that suffix [khom] indicates a day solar month, [yon] a day one. Prior to , traditional Thai practice had in fact recognised the need for extra leap-year like days, called [athisurathin].
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Their addition was specified by a rather complex principle involving a variable called the [kammacubala] see Eade ; 47 and Prasert Na Nagara A number of traditional Thai Buddhist festivals and other events are determined by the phases of the moon, as shown in 5. The equinoxes are points on the ecliptic where the sun is located when day and night are exactly equal in length.
The Spring or Vernal Equinox has been widely taken to be the starting point of the solar year. As Hipparchus c. Thus "Aries" can either mean either i the group of stars traditionally seen as the figure of a ram—the actual star group— or ii the degree region of the ecliptic immediately following the Vernal Equinox—wherever that may fall.
After adopting the Western or Babylonian zodiac, the Hindu astrologers opted for i , while the Western astrologers opted for ii. For India, this effectively stabilised the definition of the Greco-Hindu zodiac for a Vernal Equinox value of about AD near alpha Arietis , while the Western zodiac has continued to slip backwards, and is presently on the Pices-Aquarius line, in terms of actual stars. Incidentally, this difference can be interpreted as evidence for about AD as the period when the constellation zodiac came into widespread usage in India.
As an example, for the date 7 December, the sun will actually be located in the star group Scorpio Skt. At present, a difference of 23 days has accumulated between the two systems Prasert Na Nagara It is interesting that Thai popular publications, such as astrology columns in newspapers, sometimes show traditional Thai-Indic dating for zodiacal sign periods, sometimes Western see 5. Returning in time to the Proto-Tai era of perhaps years ago, what can be said of month reckoning?
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It would appear that the Proto-Tais numbered lunar months consecutively from one to twelve, as discussed in the preceding section. Both the Indian astronomers and their Khmer followers counted days in terms of lunar months, with the familiar system of counting 15 days of the waxing moon until full and another count of waning days. The latter count varied: 15 days for even-numbered months and 14 for odd-numbered ones, giving monthly totals of 30 and 29 respectively. As noted above, the Proto-Tais may have used a version of this system but the evidence is unclear.
Some inscriptions show an in-between system beginning in [ka:rttika], referred to as the Kengtung system, see Eade Apart from superficial mismatches in month numbering, intercalary days and months raised more substantial technical problems, sometimes even with political consequences see section 9. More fundamental is the shortfall between twelve lunar months totalling days, 8 hours, and some minutes and the solar year days, 5 hours, and some minutes. Nearly 11 days per year are needed to reconcile these cycles, i. A corrective sequence might then add an extra day month every three years, but sometimes the extra month would be needed after only two years.
In Thai practice, a further minor adjustment was made about once in five years by adding an extra day. For more detail and comparison with Burmese practice, see Eade ch. In traditional usage within the Thai cultural milieu, there were different means determining which years were to have extra months [athikama:t] and extra days [athikawa:n], rendering the dating of traditional sources a complex task.
The common method currently used is the so-called Buddhist method, set out in a manual of Luang Wisandarunkorn Prasert Na Nagara, , We slightly reinterpret this system here by supplying Western constellation names. The rules are based on two principles concerned with Buddhist holiday A:sa:lahabu:cha: 5.
The Rains Retreat is to begin i on the first day after the Full Moon of the lunar month of [a:sa:t] and ii when the moon is located in the constellation of Sagittarius, somewhat widely defined.